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How to select the right water purifier When it comes to caring for your family, you need to avoid taking impulsive decisions. One of the important decisions that you need to make is buying the right water purifier. Though it may seem quite easy to buy a water purifier, there are a number of factors that you need to consider. The water purifier that you choose depends on the quality of water you receive in the area. In addition, you need to consider the technologies used and read the water purifier reviews before making the final decision. If you too are planning to buy the best water purifier here are some important factors you need to consider. How to choose the best water purifier for home You should consider the below mentioned points whilst purchasing a water purifier. Water Quality As already mentioned, you need to check the water quality before buying a purifier. If water in your area has a high TDS level, hardness and salinity, you need to opt for an RO water purifier. RO water purifiers come with a semi-permeable membrane which can remove the dissolved salts, metals and impurities. Types of Water Purifier There are different water purification technologies available in the market. Understanding the various water purifier technologies is very important in order to make the right decision. Depending on the water quality and budget, you can choose among RO, UV, and UF (gravity based) water purifiers. Here are some more details about the various technologies. RO Water Purifiers Reverse Osmosis Purifiers are ideal for areas that have high TDS level. RO water purifiers can remove heavy metals, Fluoride, Arsenic, and other toxic impurities from water. However, RO purifiers also remove some of the essential minerals from water which can be supplemented by mineral addition system. Gravity Based Water Purifiers UF Water Purifier for low TDS water Gravity based water purifiers are budget-friendly and don’t require power to operate. You can use gravity based water purifiers if the TDS level in your area is low. The water purifiers are ideal for removing bacteria, dust, chlorine and cysts from water. UV Water Purifiers UV Water Purifier UV water purifiers use a high power UV lamp to disinfect the water, the UV purifier does not remove other physical or chemical impurities from the water. Contamination Contaminants Present in Water Bacteria, nitrate, dissolved pesticides, and lead are some of the common contaminants present in water. The amount of contaminants present in water can be tested in any laboratory. If water supplied to your home is high in microbes and contaminants, you need to install a RO+UV+UF filtration as an intelligent choice. The UV effects irradiate the water and penetrate the cells of bacteria and viruses, destroying their ability to reproduce. These organisms fail to multiply and eventually die. The RO membrane removes these dead germs and contaminants from water and makes it fit for consumption. Storage Capacity When buying a water purifier, it is very important to take into account the storage capacity. If you live in an area which is prone to power cuts, you need a water purifier which has a higher storage capacity. The automated water purifiers start the purification process as soon as the water level in the purifier declines. Certifications Another important factor that you need to check in water purifier reviews is the certifications received by the brand. Certified water purifiers ensure that the brand is authentic and trustworthy. ISI and WQIA (Water Quality Association of India) the Indian certification bodies, NSF, WQA, IBWA etc. are International certification bodies. Maintenance and After Sales Services Lastly, before making the final decision, ensure that you get all the necessary information about maintenance and after-sales services of water purifiers. A water purifier that needs frequent maintenance services is not worth the money you invest. In addition, you also need to check the after sales services provided by the company. Poor after sales services lead to a lot of problems if something goes wrong with the water purifier.
UV System WHAT IS UV DISINFECTION SYSTEM AND HOW DOES IT WORK? UV Disinfection System is an extremely effective way to combat microbial contamination in water. However, microbes have to be exposed to UV-C light in the proper amount in order to effectively disinfect the water. UV Disinfection Systems are used in many different applications ranging from the purification of drinking water in individual homes to disinfecting water supply of entire townships. UV treatment for water is recognized as the safer and more cost-effective way to disinfect water for industrial applications. UV sanitization is useful in almost any application where microbial free, safe and pure water is required; and where there is a chance of the water being contaminated before it reaches the final point of use. How Does UV Disinfection System Work? UV light disinfects by penetrating microorganisms and destroying their DNA. DNA plays an important role in organisms’ functions and reproduction hence destroying the DNA prevents the organism from being active and multiplying. This UV energy (wavelength of 240-280 nm) is also naturally found in sunlight in very small quantities. The same energy is produced in stronger intensities with help of high mercury discharge lamps, commonly known as UV lamps. No bacteria, viruses, molds or their spores can survive when exposed to the correct dose of UV light. Therefore UV is considered as the best solution for water sterilization. Industrial Applications of UV Disinfection System Ultraviolet disinfection system is not simply a lamp inside a pipe. The UV Reactor must be designed to ensure that all microbes receive sufficient exposure to the UV light (dose).Based on the hydraulic properties of water; the reactor needs to be optimized to guide the flow in a manner so as to maximize residence time and boost turbulence. Well designed UV systems are producing consistently exceptional results in the industrial applications. Few Examples : Food and Beverage – UV disinfection system can help to achieve quality of water as per specifications laid down by the FDA ( Food and Drug Administration ) Bio- Pharmaceutical – Water used in Pharmaceutical and healthcare products and for CIP (Cleaning in Place) must be free of chemicals like chlorine, ozone, and pathogens. Most pharmaceutical companies depend on UV systems for water disinfection. Cosmetics – Water that is free of microorganisms and toxins ensure quality and enhance the shelf life of cosmetics. UV Sterilization is the preferred choice for the cosmetic industry across the globe. Centralized Drinking Water – A UV system is an easy, affordable solution to ensure pure water in each and every tap of your home or office. Waste Water Disinfection and Reuse – To combat the problems of water scarcity and rising cost of fresh water, UV Disinfection can help by treating the waste water in the tertiary stage. UV systems that are specially designed for wastewater can thus disinfect wastewater so that the water can be reused for secondary purposes such as flushing and gardening. Swimming Pools – Traditionally, chlorine has been in use to ensure clean water in swimming pools. However, it is increasingly being known that with chemical disinfection, chemical reacts with many other organic matters to form hundreds of new chemicals which are harmful. While UV is recognized as safer and more cost effective way to disinfect swimming pools. Benefits of UV Disinfection System Natural – UV is nature’s way of purification. Environmentally Friendly – No Toxic by-products are formed during UV disinfection process Effective – All known microorganisms are susceptible to UV light Economical – Lowest operating cost amongst disinfection systems Safe& Chemical Free – No addition of chemicals hence no danger of overdosing Fast – It is In-contact purification therefore Instant Easy to Manage – Well designed systems like the Alfaa UV systems come with many advanced features like CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), high-efficiency electronic ballasts, and extremely precise UV intensity monitors which make them highly effective and hence easy to manage. Does a UV Disinfection System need periodic maintenance? There can be some cases where the water is not adequately pre-treated and turbidity levels are low. In such cases, routine inspection and cleaning can be carried out every 6 months. In the case of high turbidity and hardness, the cleaning frequency might need to be increased. Finally, the UV lamp has a limited life and must be replaced once it is exhausted. In the unlikely event of premature failure of the lamp, the monitoring circuit will provide the signal to advise replacement.
Disinfectants Copper-silver ionization Metals such as copper and silver can be used for water disinfection, if they are ionized. Process history Archeological excavations show, that people have been using copper for more than 10000 years and have been using silver for more than 5000 years. Copper can be easily extracted and processed. More than 7000 years ago people developed a copper extraction mechanism for copper ores. The Roman empire gained most of its copper from Cyprus, the isle that gave copper its name. Nowadays copper is mainly extracted from ores, such as cuprite (CuO2), tenorite (CuO), malachite (CuO3•Cu(OH)2), chalcocite (Cu2S), covelite (CuS) and bornite (Cu6FeS4). Large deposits of copper ores have been found throughout the US, Chili, Zambia, Zaïre, Peru and Canada. Silver can be obtained from pure deposits, from silver ores such as argenite (Ag2S) and horn silver (AgCl) and combined with ore deposites that contain lead, gold or copper. Both copper and silver have been applied for centuries because of their biocidal mechanism. The Vickings used copper strings on their ships to prevent the growth of algae and shells. Modern ships still use the same technology. Most anti-fouling paints contain copper, reducing the number of marine species growing on the walls of ships. Because of this measure, ships can reach their destination faster. Nomads used silver coins to improve drinking water quality. Well water containing copper and silver coins is very bright, due to the biocidal effect of these metals. Since 1869 various publications have appeared on disinfection properties of silver. Some European and Russian villages have been using silver for drinking water treatment for many years. Copper-silver ionization was developed in both Europe and the United States in the 1950’s. Copper-silver ion - Process Copper-silver ionization is brought about by electrolysis. An electric current is created through copper-silver, causing positively charged copper and silver ions to form. Copper-silver ionization brings us back to basic chemistry: an ion; an electrically charged atom has a positive charge when it gives up an electron and a negative charge when it takes up an electron. A positively charged ion in called a cation and a negatively charged ion is called an anion. During ionization, atoms turn into cations or anions. When copper-silver ionization is applied, positively charged copper (Cu+ and Cu2+) and silver (Ag+) ions are formed. The electrodes are placed close together. The water that is disinfected flows past the electrodes. An electric current is created, causing the outer atoms of the electrodes to lose an electron and become positively charged. The larger part of the ions flows away through the water, before reaching the opposite electrode. Generally the amount of silver ions at a copper ion rate of 0, 15 to 0, 40 ppm lies between 5 and 50 ppb. The ion concentration is determined by the water flow. The number of ions that is released increases, when electric charges are higher. When copper ions (Cu+) dissolve in water, they are oxidized immediately to form Cu2+ ions. Copper can be found in the water in free form. It is commonly bond to water particles. Copper (Cu+) ions are unstable in water, unless a stabilizing ligand is present. Applications of copper-silver ionization Copper-silver ionization is suitable for a large number of applications. It became of interest when NASA used copper-silver ionization for drinking water production aboard Apollo space ships in 1960. The ion generator that was used was the size of a matchbox. Because of copper-silver ionization, drinking water could be produced safely in space without the use of chlorine. In England, copper-silver ionization is applied in about 120 hospitals successfully for the deactivation of Legionella bacteria. In the United States, copper-silver ionization is mainly used for swimming pool water disinfection. Copper-silver is often used to limit disinfection byproducts formation during chlorine disinfection. Because of its specific properties, copper-silver ionization is very suitable for fishpond disinfection. Copper-silver ionization is not dependent on temperatures. It is active in the entire water system. Copper-silver ionization is used by water bottling companies and companies that recycle water throughout the United States. The disinfection mechanism of copper-silver ionization Electrically charged copper ions (Cu2+) in the water search for particles of opposite polarity, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. Positively charged copper ions form electrostatic compounds with negatively charged cell walls of microorganisms. These compounds disturb cell wall permeability and cause nutrient uptake to fail. Copper ions penetrate the cell wall and as a result they will create an entrance for silver ions (Ag+). These penetrate the core of the microorganism. Silver ions bond to various parts of the cell, such as the DNA and RNA, cellular proteins and respiratory enzymes, causing all life support systems in the cell to be immobilized. As a result, there is no more cellular growth or cell division, causing bacteria to no longer multiply and eventually die out. The ions remain active until they are absorbed by a microorganism. The disinfection applications of copper-silver ionization Swimming pools and copper-silver ionization In the United States, copper silver ionization is applied as an alternative for chlorine disinfection. Chlorine use can be reduced by 80 percent. However, another disinfectant should be added in addition to copper-silver. This is because copper-silver cannot remove organic matter, such as skin tissue, hairs, urine and skin flakes, from swimming pool water. Cooling towers and copper-silver ionization Cooling tower water requires disinfection, to prevent the growth of microorganisms. This can be brought about by a combination of copper-silver ionization and chlorine disinfection. Chlorine concentrations that are required are much lower. Copper-silver ionization can also be used to kill Legionella bacteria in cooling towers. Legionella in hospitals and nursing homes and copper-silver ionization Copper-silver ionization is applied in hospitals and nursing homes to prevent the distribution of Legionella bacteria. The main source of Legionella distribution is the warm water system. Circumstances in warm water systems are ideal for Legionella bacteria to grow and multiply. Contagion mainly takes place through shower steam. Copper-silver ionization can sufficiently kill Legionella bacteria. Copper-silver can actively deactivate Legionella, as well. Drinking water and copper-silver ionization In the United States, several drinking water production companies use copper-silver ionization as an alternative for chlorine disinfection and to prevent the formation of disinfection byproducts. The standard for trihalomethanes was decreased by EPA from 100 to 80 microgram per litre. When copper-silver ionization is combined with chlorine disinfection, it is an excellent disinfection mechanism to deactivate viruses and bacteria. What are the terms of copper-silver ionization? The affectivity of copper-silver disinfection depends on a number of factors: Firstly, the concentration of copper and silver ions in the water should be sufficient. The required concentration is determined by the water flow, the volume of water in the system, the conductivity of the water and the present concentration of microorganisms. Secondly, the electrodes should be in good condition. When the water is hard or fouling takes place as a consequence of water hardness and quality, there will be a decrease in electrode release and the additional effect will decrease. By using pure silver and pure copper, the supply of copper and silver ions can be regulated separately. These electrodes suffer from less limestone formation and fouling. Thirdly, the affectivity of copper-silver ionization depends on the pH value of the water. When pH values are high, copper ions are less effective. When the pH value exceeds 6, insoluble copper complexes will precipitate. When the pH value is 5, copper ions mainly exist as Cu(HCO3)+; when the pH value is 7 as Cu(CO3) and when the pH values is 9 as Cu(CO3)22-. Fourthly, copper-silver ionization affectivity is determined by the presence of chlorine. Chlorine causes silver chlorine complex formation. When this occurs, silver ions are no longer available for disinfection. How effective is copper-silver ionization? Copper-silver ionization can deactivate Legionella bacteria and other microorganisms in slow-running water and still water. Legionella bacteria are very susceptive to copper-silver ionization. Copper-silver ionization also takes care of bio film. Copper remains within the bio film, causing a residual effect. It appears that copper-silver ionization addition causes the number of Legionella bacteria to diminish. After a short period of time, however, the number of Legionella bacteria will rise again because they can also be found in the bio film. Copper that stays behind in the bio film takes care of these bacteria. When copper and silver ions are added to water constantly, the concentration of Legionella bacteria remains low. The deactivation rate of copper-silver ionization is lower than that of ozone or UV. A benefit of copper-silver ionization is that ions remain in the water for a long period of time. This causes long-term disinfection and protection from recontaminations. Copper and silver ions remain in the water until they precipitate or absorb to bacteria or algae, and are removed from water by filtration after that. The benefits and drawbacks of copper-silver ionization Benefits Copper-silver ionization affectively deactivates Legionella bacteria and bio film and it improves water quality. Copper-silver ionization has a larger residual effect than most other disinfectants. Copper and silver ions remain in the water for a long period of time. Because of its local affectivity, the effect is larger than that of UV. Copper-silver is effective throughout the entire water system, even in dead-end points and parts of the system that contain slow-running water. Copper-silver use affectivity does not depend on water temperature. When copper-silver is used, less maintenance to the water system is required. Copper-silver is non-corrosive; it causes less strain on the distribution system. Because of a decrease in the use of chemicals, the lids and pumps are not affected. Furthermore, shower heads, tanks and taps are not contaminated. When copper-silver ionization is applied, there are no transport and storage difficulties. Drawbacks Copper-silver affectivity depends on the pH value of the water. At a pH value of 9, only one tenth of all Legionella bacteria are removed. When dissolved solid concentrations are high, silver will precipitate. This means silver ions are no longer available for disinfection. Silver ions easily react with chlorines and nitrates that are present in the water, causing them to no longer be effective. Some species of microorganisms can become resistant to silver ions. They can remove metal from their systems or convert it to a less toxic product. These microorganisms can become resistant to copper-silver ionization. Although it is suggested that Legionella bacteria can develop resistance to copper-silver ionization, this disinfectant still appears to be effective for Legionella deactivation. To affectively kill pathogenic microorganisms, copper and silver ions should be present in the entire water system. When the system is used little and the water flow is quite slow, or when there are dead-end points in the system, this can causes problems for disinfection. The health effects of copper-silver ionization Insufficient evidence have been found on the possible health effects of long-term exposure to copper-silver ionization. Little is known on the general health effects of copper-silver ionization. Legislation for copper-silver ionization EU The European Union does not dictate any standards considering silver concentrations in the water. Copper, however, has a maximum value of 20 μg/L, because it corrodes waterworks. Copper concentrations should be measured in taps. (EU Drinking water directive 98/83/EC, 1998) WHO The WHO does not dictate any standards considering the concentration of silver as a drinking water disinfectant, because the organization found the available data to be insufficient to recommend a health standard. (WHO, Guidelines drinking water quality, 3e editie) USA The United States dictate a maximum value of 1 mg/L of copper and a maximum value of 0, 1 mg/L of silver. (EPA, National Secondary Drinking Water regulations, 2002) How is copper-silver ionization controlled? When copper-silver ionization is applied, a log of the entire system must be kept. Water analysis and tests must be conducted to prove system affectivity, because this concerns an alternative disinfectant. The first analysis round takes place before the application of copper-silver ionization. Copper and silver concentrations in the water are measured and the amount of Legionella bacteria and the aerobic growth number at 22 ˚C and at 37 ˚C are determined. When the system is placed, the outcome of water analysis should be checked and reported monthly.
Is Iron In Drinking Water A Public Health Risk? It’s long been thought that the presence of iron in drinking water is a cosmetic problem rather than a public health concern. But some scientists are now saying that while the iron itself might not be hazardous to your health, what it does to your drinking water is. Dr. Marc Edwards is a professor at Virginia Tech and world-renowned expert on lead corrosion. He found dangerous levels of lead in Flint’s water system last summer after a local resident and activist reached out to ask for help. His research says that high iron in water can remove disinfectants like chlorine, allowing harmful bacteria to grow. This includes bacteria like legionella, which causes Legionnaire’s Disease. Legionnaire’s disease is a lung infection caused by breathing in contaminated water droplets. The disease also causes high fever and diarrhea and it can be fatal. The Centers for Disease Control estimates as few as two per cent of legionella cases ever get reported, so it’s tough to know the true impact on public health. Edwards believes that there may have been an increase in rates Legionnaire’s disease in the Flint area based on the number of cases health officials have reported, but no direct link has been made to the city’s water supply. “Regular testing can help to protect your water system and the people who rely on you to provide safe drinking water, ” says Pat Whalen, President & CEO of microbial monitoring firm LuminUltra. “Detecting elevated microbial growth levels in real-time can mean the difference between early prevention and putting consumers at risk.” Whalen adds that LuminUltra Water (QGA™) test kit enables microbial data to be generated in a short amount of time from many points in a water treatment or distribution system.
ENERGIZING NEW DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES Sponsored by Initiatives seek to make water treatment options more cost- and energy-efficient. By Alanna Maya Desalination can be used to treat seawater, brackish water, and contaminated water for use in municipal water supplies or to reclaim contaminated water, making it an ideal solution for areas where fresh water resources are limited. But with energy accounting for anywhere from one-third to more than half of a plant’s operating costs, professional organizations and researchers are looking at ways to reduce energy consumption. Finding a more energy-efficient way toward desalination could mean an unlimited supply of freshwater resources in the future. SPONSORED CONTENT BY Evoqua Delivering Worry-Free Water (TM) For today's industrial producers, water and wastewater are critical considerations but they are not necessarily core to their businesses. Being able to rely on a trusted expert gives manufacturers peace of mind, allowing them to focus on their key business objectives. We spoke with Mitch Summerfield, vice president and general manager of light industry technologies for Evoqua Water Technologies, about what it takes to be a leader in water and wastewater services for the industrial sector. Brought To You By According to a joint statement by the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the Bureau of Reclamation, “The need to reduce the cost, energy usage and environmental impacts in advanced water treatment and desalination [requires] a focus on innovation of new systems or optimization of existing technology.” To this end, the two organizations are offering four awards of more than $11, 000 each for development of “novel approaches or processes to desalinate water in a way that reduces primary energy use.” Other agencies are also seeking out ways to foster innovation in this area. Illinois mechanical science and engineering professor Kyle Smith and his co-­authors have shown that a new battery-like water desalination device could help provide fresh water to a variety of regions efficiently and economically. Photo by L. Brian Stauffer. Illinois mechanical science and engineering professor Kyle Smith and his co-­authors have shown that a new battery-like water desalination device could help provide fresh water to a variety of regions efficiently and economically. Photo by L. Brian Stauffer. Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced $15 million in congressionally-directed funding for solar desalination technologies. The Solar Energy Technologies Office will award between $500, 000 and $5 million to 7 to 10 projects that explore early-stage technologies with the prospect of significantly reducing the cost of desalination through solar thermal energy. “By integrating solar technology with desalination, we can dramatically lower the cost of creating clean water, ” said Charlie Gay, Solar Energy Technologies Office director, in a press release. According to the DOE, solar power, either in the form of electricity or thermal power, has the potential to dramatically reduce the cost of desalination. With electricity costs accounting for up to half of the operating expenses for desalination projects, this is in important area of research. Another is in the area of concentrate management. The Kay Bailey Hutchison Desalination Plant recently entered into a utility partnership with Enviro Water Minerals to expand upon its desalination capacity and treatment for brine concentrate. Photo courtesy El Paso Water. The Kay Bailey Hutchison Desalination Plant recently entered into a utility partnership with Enviro Water Minerals to expand upon its desalination capacity and treatment for brine concentrate. Photo courtesy El Paso Water. A DECADE OF INNOVATION Since opening in 2007, the Kay Bailey Hutchison (KBH) Desalination Plant in El Paso, Texas, has become a model for places around the globe facing serious water supply challenges. The plant has produced 17 billion gallons of water since beginning operations. Recently, water sector leaders and researchers gathered to celebrate the desalination plant on its 10th anniversary. “Given the vast brackish groundwater resources, desalination has become an important part of the puzzle that will ensure we have a vital water future for this community, including for our kids, grandchildren and anybody that wants to live here in the future, ” said John Balliew, president and CEO of El Paso Water. A new utility partnership between El Paso Water and Enviro Water Minerals (EWM) will result in what is being called “the first full-recovery desalination facility.” It includes a new, neighboring facility that will take the plant’s brine concentrate — which would otherwise go through a deep well injection process — and turn the salts and minerals into industrial-grade commercial products. EWM will then sell fresh drinking water back to the utility at a rate of 2 million gallons per day at full capacity. The Texas Coalition for Affordable Power released a report this summer on the declining costs of energy in Texas and credited a competitive market, use of wind, solar and nuclear power, and the price of natural gas as major factors. At the KBH plant’s anniversary celebration, Paul Choules, president of the Texas Desalination Association, spoke about taking advantage of the lower costs of energy in Texas. “The reality is in the state of Texas we should be able to desalinate cheaper than anywhere in the world, and one of the major reasons for that is the cost of energy, ” Choules said. Guy Carpenter, president of the national WateReuse Association, said that for inland desalination applications, brine management is the chief barrier nationwide. He said utilities will continue to have to deal with the expensive options for removal, such as evaporation, thermal brine concentration and deep well injection. Enviro Water Minerals’ concentration system processes the diluted chemicals manufactured in the desalination plant. Photo courtesy El Paso Water. Enviro Water Minerals’ concentration system processes the diluted chemicals manufactured in the desalination plant. Photo courtesy El Paso Water. In a statement, Barbara Martin, director of engineering and Technical Services for the American Water Works Association, said innovations at El Paso Water could bring about more widespread use of desalination in the industry. El Paso Water can “provide a blueprint for utilities to follow and hopefully increase the use of desalination technology in the future, ” Martin said. Economically Desirable and Energy Efficient Engineers at the University of Illinois have developed a saltwater desalination process that is potentially cheaper than reverse osmosis and borrows from battery technology. “As demand for diminishing clean water sources increases, the need for desalination of lower-salinity brackish water from inland and industrial sources will increase, ” Illinois mechanical science and engineering professor Kyle Smith and his co-authors said. Previously, Smith and his team used theoretical modeling to show that technology used in sodium-ion batteries may efficiently desalinate seawater. Their theory states that by using electrodes that contain sodium and chloride ions, salt is drawn out and held in a chamber separate from the purified water. “In our new study, we constructed and experimented with a battery-like device that uses electrodes made from a different material. That material can remove from brackish water not only sodium ions but also potassium, calcium, magnesium and others, ” Smith said in a statement. “This is important because salt and brackish waters do not contain just sodium chloride. It is often in a mix with other salts like potassium, calcium and mangnesium chloride.” The new material is a chemical analog to the compound Prussian blue — the intense pigment used in ink for blueprints. It works by taking and holding positively charged ions like sodium within its crystal structure, Smith said. “The competition between the rate of diffusion of the positively charged ion within the crystal structure and the volume at which the ions can be stored creates a trap-like structure, ” Smith said. “They go in easily but can’t get out.” There are other materials that can secure positive ions, but the Prussian blue analog has an additional benefit: it is potentially very cheap to source. “To make a technology like this economically feasible, it needs to be cheap and, ideally, have some value-added benefit, ” Smith said. “By showing that our device works well with lower-salinity waters, the door for use with inland brackish waters and possibly industrial wastewater has opened.” Smith and his co-authors show that the amount of salt removal is sufficient to demonstrate their concept using brackish water. However, further research is needed to determine how the removal of salts from higher-salinity seawater and wastewater will impact that energy efficiency. WW Alanna Maya is Assistant Editor for WaterWorld and Industrial WaterWorld Magazines. Email her at alannam@pennwell.com.
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