Water borne diseases are caused by the pathogenic microorganisms that are transmitted in the contaminated fresh water. Waterborne infection can be caused by drinking polluted water and even by consuming the food that is infected with pathogens. It has been reported that half of India’s mortality is caused due to waterborne diseases. Amongst the water-related diseases in India, diarrhea is the most prevalent and top on the list. Malaria and cholera are the waterborne diseases that thousands of people fall prey to it.
Different Types of Waterborne Diseases and their Symptoms
There are numerous harmful bacteria, virus, chemical pollutants and dissolved impurities that are present in the contaminated water. Such pathogens are not even visible to us through naked eyes and thus, when we drink the impure water we fall sick. There are many cities that do not have water treatment facilities and in this concern, people are knowingly or unknowingly consuming polluted water that is supplied to their home. It is the water-related diseases and the scarcity of the clean water that are the main cause of deaths in both the urban and rural areas.
Cholera: Cholera is a waterborne disease and is diarrhoeal in nature. A person can get affected by Cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. Thousands of people fall prey to this disease every year and many lose their lives as well. It can happen to both children and adults and some of the symptoms of cholera include vomiting, abdominal cramps, watery bowels, and fever.
Typhoid: It is another disease that gets transmitted by drinking contaminated water that carries ‘Salmonellae Typhi bacteria’. Some of the symptoms through which you can understand that you are being affected by Typhoid are prolonged fever, loss of appetite, headache, constipation, exhaustion, sleepiness, and nausea. It can also be transmitted by close contact with the infected person.
Diarrhoea: Diarrhoea is one of the most common waterborne diseases that mostly affects children under the age of 5. The infection of diarrhea spreads through eating contaminated food and impure water. Some of the symptoms of diarrhea include dehydration, severe dizziness, loss of consciousness, pale skin and bloody stool, little or no urination. The attack of diarrhea can last up to 2 weeks by leaving the person dehydrated and if kept untreated the infected person can lose his/her life as well.
Hepatitis A: Another type of waterborne diseases is Hepatitis A and it is caused by Hepatitis A virus, which affects the liver. It is normally spread by the fecal-oral route, by direct contact with the infected person or by ingestion of the contaminated food or water. Some of the symptoms that you can find in the infected person are nausea, vomiting, and fever.
Amebiasis: Amebiasis is a kind of parasitic infection in the intestine that is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, or E. histolytica. The single-celled protozoan usually enters the human body when the person swallows cysts through food or water. Cysts are an inactive form of parasite that stays alive for several months in the soil or environment, especially in the feces. So, you can say that the parasite can also enter the body through direct contact with fecal matter. Some of the symptoms of amebiasis are the loose stool, stomach pain, and abdominal cramping.
Campylobacteriosis: Under the list of waterborne diseases, Campylobacteriosis is another infection, which is caused by the Campylobacter bacterium, most commonly known as C. jejuni. Campylobacteriosis is the most common bacterial infections produces an inflammatory in the body. It can sometimes cause bloody diarrhea or dysentery syndrome like fever and pain.
Giardiasis: Giardiasis is another kind of infection that is caused in the small intestine. It is mainly caused by a microscopic parasite that is called as Giardia lamblia. Giardiasis infection gets mainly spread through the contact with the infected people and even by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Some of the symptoms of Giardiasis are Fatigue, Nausea, Vomiting, excessive gas, abdominal pain, and headaches.
Viral Gastroenteritis: Viral Gastroenteritis is a kind of inflammation of the stomach and intestines, which can be caused by any number of viruses. It is a kind of contagious illness that is spread when you stay close with people who are infected with it. It can be spread by eating contaminated food or by drinking impure water. Some of the symptoms of Viral Gastroenteritis include watery diarrhea, fever, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and etc.
Anyone can get affected by these water-borne diseases especially young children and pregnant women are more susceptible to them. Prevention of water-borne diseases requires many necessary precautions which include removal of impurities from water, avoiding consumption of unhygienic water, drink filtered water and much more.