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Water-saving tips just in time for Thanksgiving We really like the following water-saving tips that were published by Denver Water's TAP. Thanksgiving is days away, so check out these tips to save water before, during and after the feast. Meal prep Don’t use running water to thaw a frozen turkey or other food. For water efficiency and food safety, defrost food in the refrigerator. Wash vegetables and fruits in a bowl or basin using a vegetable brush instead of letting water run. Use the extra water on plants. Cook food in as little water as possible. This also helps it retain more nutrients. Select the proper pan size for cooking. Large pans may require more cooking water than necessary. Dinner time Enjoy the side dishes! Corn, apples and potatoes require only 84, 108, and 132 gallons of water per pound to grow, respectively. Meats such as beef and lamb require many more times the amount of water per pound to produce. Reuse leftover water from cooked or steamed foods to make a nutritious soup. Designate one glass for each guest to use for drinking water. This will cut down on the number of glasses to wash. Food waste is water waste. It takes about 520 gallons of water to produce one pound of turkey meat. To avoid scraping leftover food in the trash, serve smaller portions and invite guests to bring containers to take extra food home. Chill drinking water in the refrigerator instead of running the faucet until the water is cold. Clean-up Scrape dishes – don’t rinse – before putting them in the dishwasher. Energy Star-qualified dishwashers and today’s detergents are designed to clean without needing a rinse. Make sure the dishwasher is full before running it. Avoid cycles like pre-rinse and rinse-hold that use heated water but may not be necessary to clean your dishes. Reduce the number of times you run your garbage disposal by composting foods that are not salty, greasy or dairy. Even if you live in an apartment, you can still compost by learning to do worm-composting. Compost can also be made from your fall leaves. Ask your Colorado State University Cooperative Extension expert for more details. When washing dishes by hand, don’t let the water run. Fill one basin with wash water and the other with rinse water. Soak pots and pans instead of letting the water run while you scrape them clean. Need some more ideas on how to save water? We have a whole Conservation section with tips on how to conserve water inside and outside and how to fix leaks. Make sure to check out our Drip Calculator too.
Chemistry of Iron removal from drinking water. Iron Removal by physical-chemical ways Iron is one of the most abundant metals of the Earth's crust. It occurs naturally in water in soluble form as the ferrous iron (bivalent iron in dissolved form Fe2+ or Fe(OH)+) or complexed form like the ferric iron (trivalent iron: Fe3+ or precipitated as Fe(OH)3). The occurrence of iron in water can also have an industrial origin ; mining, iron and steel industry, metals corrosion, etc. In general, iron does not present a danger to human health or the environment, but it brings unpleasantness of an aesthetic and organoleptic nature. Indeed, iron gives a rust color to the water, which can stain linen, sanitary facilities or even food industry products. Iron also gives a metallic taste to water, making it unpleasant for consumption. It can also be at the origin of corrosion in drains sewers, due to the development of microorganisms, the ferrobacteries. In aerated water, the redox potential of the water is such as it allows an oxidation of the ferrous iron in ferric iron which precipitates then in iron hydroxide, Fe(OH)3, thus allowing a natural removal of dissolved iron. 4 Fe2+ 3 O2 --> 2 Fe2O3 Fe2O3 + 3 H2O --> 2Fe(OH)3 The form of iron in water depends on the water pH and redox potential, as shown in the Pourbaix diagram of Iron below. Usually groundwater has a low oxygen content, thus a low redox potential and low pH (5.5- 6.5) However ground waters are naturally anaerobic: so iron remains in solution and therefore it is important to remove it for a water use. The elimination of the ferrous iron, by physical-chemical way, is obtained by raising the water redox potential by oxidation thanks to oxygen of the air and this by simple ventilation. In the case of acid water, the treatment could be supplemented by a correction of the pH. Thus, the ferrous iron is oxidized in ferric iron, which precipitates in iron hydroxide, Fe(OH)3. The precipitate is then separated from water by filtration on sand or decantation. The stage of precipitation by chemical oxidation can also be carried out with the stronger oxidants such as the chlorine dioxide (ClO2), ozone (O3) or the potassium permanganate (KMnO4). This elimination can be carried out by cascade or spraying open-air systems (for an acceptable maximum content of Fe2+ of 7mg.L-1) known as gravitating systems. Those systems require a significant place on the ground, but, in addition to an easy and a cheap exploitation cost, they also make possible aggressive CO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal. There are also pressure systems, which in addition to their compactness, make possible to treat water whose Fe2+ concentrations between 7 and 10mg.L-1. Iron is often found in water in complexed forms. In order to be eliminated, iron complexed requests a coagulation stage, which comes in between oxidation and filtration. Remark : Thanks to microorganisms, it is possible to remove iron from water by biological way. Indeed, there are many bacteria, whose metabolism and thus their survival, are related to the oxidation of iron. However this biological removal requires conditions specific for the pH, the temperature, the redox potential, etc
Chemistry of Iron Removal Iron is one of the most abundant metals of the Earth's crust. It occurs naturally in water in soluble form as the ferrous iron or complexed form like the ferric iron (trivalent iron: Fe3+ or precipitated as Fe(OH)3). The occurrence of iron in water can also have an industrial origin ; mining, iron and steel industry, metals corrosion, etc. In general, iron does not present a danger to human health or the environment, but it brings unpleasantness of an aesthetic and organoleptic nature. Indeed, iron gives a rust color to the water, which can stain linen, sanitary facilities or even food industry products. Iron also gives a metallic taste to water, making it unpleasant for consumption. It can also be at the origin of corrosion in drains sewers, due to the development of microorganisms, the ferro-bacteries. In aerated water, the redox potential of the water is such as it allows an oxidation of the ferrous iron in ferric iron which precipitates then in iron hydroxide, Fe(OH)3, thus allowing a natural removal of dissolved iron. 4 Fe2+ 3 O2 --> 2 Fe2O3 Fe2O3 + 3 H2O --> 2Fe(OH)3 The form of iron in water depends on the water pH and redox potential. Usually groundwater has a low oxygen content, thus a low redox potential and low pH (5.0- 6.5) Pourbaix diagram of Iron However ground waters are naturally anaerobic: so iron remains in solution and therefore it is important to remove it for a water use. The elimination of the ferrous iron, by physical-chemical way, is obtained by raising the water redox potential by oxidation thanks and this by simple ventilation. In the case of acid water, the treatment could be supplemented by a correction of the pH. Thus, the ferrous iron is oxidized in ferric iron, which precipitates in iron hydroxide, Fe (OH)3. The precipitate is then separated from water by turbidity removal filter or decantation. The stage of precipitation by chemical oxidation can also be carried out with the stronger oxidants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), ozone (O3) or the potassium permanganate (KMnO4). This elimination can be carried out by cascade or spraying open-air systems (for an acceptable maximum content of Fe2+ of 7mg.L-1) known as gravitating systems. Those systems require a significant place on the ground, but, in addition to an easy and a cheap exploitation cost, they also make possible aggressive CO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal. There are also pressure systems, which in addition to their compactness, make possible to treat water whose Fe2+ concentrations between 7 and 10mg.L-1. Iron removal system schema Iron is often found in water in complexed forms. In order to be eliminated, iron complexed requests a coagulation stage, which comes in between oxidation and filtration. Remark : It is possible to remove iron from water by biological way. Indeed, there are many bacteria, whose metabolism and thus their survival, are related to the oxidation of iron. However this biological removal requires conditions specific for the pH, the temperature, the redox potential, etc.
Ecolab - Water Testing Lab Today is the second anniversary of our laboratory, Ecolab, a water testing lab, accredited by Kerala pollution control board. We express our sincere thanks to all our valuable customers on this occasion
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